Tag: LoRa

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LPWAN in the unlicensed band is not economically futureproof, the bankruptcy of Sigfox and the impending shutdowns of several LoRaWAN networks in several countries support this statement. The adoption and availability of NB-IOT and LTE-M will eventually overcome the need for LoRaWAN and then we will see LoRaWAN be discontinued or the way of using it will change.

LoRa and LoRaWAN are both commonly used for IoT devices, but each has its own capabilities and applications. LoRa technology provides a way to use wireless spectrum without a license, but lacks the networking capabilities needed for management. LoRaWAN is a protocol that builds on top of LoRa and creates the network layer.

Geolocation is the ability to determine the location of a LoRa sensor without using GPS. This is an add-on and does not have to be available on every LoRaWAN network. The LoRa sensor does not need to implement additional functionalities for this. The location of a sensor can already be determined when an uplink message is received by three or more LoRaWAN gateways.

LPWAN stands for Low Power Wide Area Network. An LPWAN network meets the following criteria: it is a wireless network, which allows communication with the network with low energy consumption. The network has a large range (several kilometers) with a low bit rate.

An LPWAN’s main purpose is to collect information. Although it is often possible to send information in both directions. There are different types of networks that meet these criteria and thus fall under the name LPWAN, such as LoRaWAN, NB-IOT and LTE M.

LoRaWAN stands for Long-Range Wide-Area Network. LoRaWAN is very suitable for battery-powered mobile devices with the aim of providing an efficient way for bi-directional communication. LoRaWAN is divided into different parts, it consists of a LoRa sensor, a LoRaWAN gateway and a LoRaWAN network server.

With LoRaWAN it is possible to send information in two directions. Information sent from the LoRa sensor is called an uplink message. Information from the network to the sensor is called a downlink message.

The LoRa Alliance is a non-profit organization behind the standardization of the LoRaWAN network. The organization consists of all kinds of members from different industries (from operators and multinationals to sensor manufacturers). The members work together to drive a successful global rollout of the LoRa (Long Range Low Power) protocol, by sharing knowledge and experience and establishing collaboration between operators worldwide. The organization is responsible for the LoRaWAN standard and the issuance of certificates. The certificate indicates that a sensor functions according to the LoRaWAN standard and is compatible with all LoRaWAN networks (apart from the fact that the frequency can differ per country).

TTN

TTN (The Things Network) has announced the LoRaWAN technology by offering a free LoRaWAN network server that is accessible to everyone. The principle is to build an open LoRaWAN network with international coverage. It is a community where all members agree that their own infrastructure (LoRaWAN gateways) can be used by everyone. It is a free service provided that all data from all available sensors in the vicinity can use your gateways to communicate with third-party applications. There is no guarantee for the availability of different nodes of the network, except for the LoRaWAN gateways that you add yourself. Thingsdata offers standard integration with The Things Network.

When using sensors that communicate via a LoRaWAN network, the LoRaWAN network server is a central element. The LoRaWAN network server is responsible for the management of the connected LoRaWAN Gateways (Radio Access Network), the authorization of the sensors and the exchange of data (uplink, downlink) between the sensors and the applications.

LoRaWAN sensors can work with three classes: Class A, Class B and Class C.

Before a sensor can participate in a LoRaWAN network, the following data must be known to both the sensor and the network: the DevAddr, NwkSKey and the AppSKey. The DevAddr is a unique address within the LoRaWAN network, which identifies the sensor. The NwkSKey and AppSKey are required for the encryption of the messages. In OTAA, these three data are generated and exchanged between the network and the sensor by means of a join procedure.